Much shipbuilding is carried out in the shipyards around the Baltic Sea. Koningsbrugge, Hans van. , In contrast, the salinity of the Danish straits, which connect the Baltic Sea and Kattegat, tends to be significantly higher, but with major variations from year to year. These have caused numerous shipwrecks, and contributed to the extreme difficulties of rescuing passengers of the ferry M/S Estonia en route from Tallinn, Estonia, to Stockholm, Sweden, in September 1994, which claimed the lives of 852 people. The Polabian Slavs were gradually assimilated by the Germans. , The Baltic Sea's salinity is much lower than that of ocean water (which averages 3.5%), as a result of abundant freshwater runoff from the surrounding land (rivers, streams and alike), combined with the shallowness of the sea itself; runoff contributes roughly one-fortieth its total volume per year, as the volume of the basin is about 21,000 km3 (5,000 cu mi) and yearly runoff is about 500 km3 (120 cu mi). Nous relevons la température de l'eau quotidiennement dans ces pays et nous l'archivons afin de pouvoir calculer les moyennes mensuelles, notamment celles du mois de septembre.. La moyenne de saison de la température de l'eau pour le mois de septembre se situe entre 62°F et 64°F. Jordanes called it the Germanic Sea in his work, the Getica. The northern part of the Baltic Sea is known as the Gulf of Bothnia, of which the northernmost part is the Bay of Bothnia or Bothnian Bay. At the bottom of the Arkona Basin (equalling depths greater than 40 m or 130 ft) and Bornholm Basin (depths greater than 80 m or 260 ft) it is typically 1.4–1.8%. During the winter of 2010–11, which was quite severe compared to those of the last decades, the maximum ice cover was 315,000 km2 (122,000 sq mi), which was reached on 25 February 2011. The Suebi eventually migrated southwest to temporarily reside in the Rhineland area of modern Germany, where their name survives in the historic region known as Swabia. Température moyenne de l'eau de la mer Baltique aujourd'hui et moyennes mensuelles pour savoir où et quand se baigner pour avoir une eau agréable. Between Falster and the German coast lie the Bay of Mecklenburg and Bay of Lübeck. "The Role of Baltic Trade in European Development from the XVIth to the XVIIIth Centuries". In 2005, a Russian group of scientists found over five thousand airplane wrecks, sunken warships, and other material, mainly from World War II, on the bottom of the sea. A surface layer of brackish water discharges 940 km3 (230 cu mi) per year into the North Sea. The grey seal is adapted to reproducing also with no ice in the sea. After the Nazi's rise to power, Germany reclaimed the Memelland and after the outbreak of the Eastern Front (World War II) occupied the Baltic states. Cetaceans in Baltic Sea have been monitored by the ASCOBANS. The Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Riga freeze typically in late January. The rest of the land is heavily populated. In Warnemünde about 110 floods occurred from 1950 to 2000, an average of just over two per year. Another way to prevent getting this page in the future is to use Privacy Pass. Pliny mentions an island named Baltia (or Balcia) with reference to accounts of Pytheas and Xenophon. [note 1], As saltwater is denser than freshwater, the bottom of the Baltic Sea is saltier than the surface. Your IP: 126.96.36.199  A similar pattern can be seen in the Gotland Basin, which is located between the island of Gotland and Latvia. A consensus of experts and scientists say that the image most likely shows a natural geological formation. Thus the Baltic Sea has long been crossed by much merchant shipping. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2002. Nous relevons la température de l'eau quotidiennement dans ces pays et nous l'archivons afin de pouvoir calculer les moyennes mensuelles, notamment celles du mois de août.. La moyenne de saison de la température de l'eau pour le mois de août se situe entre 66°F et 67°F. Measures are also taken in the whole catchment area of the Baltic Sea to reduce land-based pollution. Some of these relicts are derived from glacial lakes, such as Monoporeia affinis, which is a main element in the benthic fauna of the low-salinity Bothnian Bay. Among marine fishes are Atlantic cod, Atlantic herring, European hake, European plaice, European flounder, shorthorn sculpin and turbot, and examples of freshwater species include European perch, northern pike, whitefish and common roach. This creates a vertical stratification of the water column, a halocline, that represents a barrier to the exchange of oxygen and nutrients, and fosters completely separate maritime environments. In modern languages it is known by the equivalents of "East Sea", "West Sea", or "Baltic Sea" in different languages: At the time of the Roman Empire, the Baltic Sea was known as the Mare Suebicum or Mare Sarmaticum. Plusieurs pays ont leurs côtes au bord de la mer Baltique, parmi lesquels : la Lettonie et la Pologne. Little is known of their extent.  However, some consider non-Baltic records to be misidentifications of juvenile lagoon cockles (Cerastoderma glaucum). The Baltic Sea is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Sweden, northeast Germany, Poland, Russia and the North and Central European Plain.. Since the end of World War II, various nations, including the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States have disposed of chemical weapons in the Baltic Sea, raising concerns of environmental contamination. In Sweden, the sea was then referred to as Mare Nostrum Balticum ("Our Baltic Sea"). • This finally happened during the Northern Crusades: Finland in the twelfth century by Swedes, and what are now Estonia and Latvia in the early thirteenth century by Danes and Germans (Livonian Brothers of the Sword). The ratification instruments were deposited by the European Community, Germany, Latvia and Sweden in 1994, by Estonia and Finland in 1995, by Denmark in 1996, by Lithuania in 1997, and by Poland and Russia in November 1999. Performance & security by Cloudflare, Please complete the security check to access. It ended only after the collapse of the Communist regimes in Central and Eastern Europe in the late 1980s. ", "Sturmfluten an der deutschen Ostseeküste", "Hydrogeography and oxygen in the deep basins", "The Baltic Sea: Its Past, Present and Future", "Land Use and Population Density in the Baltic Sea Drainage Basin: A GIS Database", "UFO at the Bottom of the Baltic Sea? During winter, fast ice, which is attached to the shoreline, develops first, rendering ports unusable without the services of icebreakers. The Western and Eastern Gotland basins form the major parts of the Central Baltic Sea or Baltic proper. In the light of political changes and developments in international environmental and maritime law, a new convention was signed in 1992 by all the states bordering on the Baltic Sea, and the European Community. The Baltic Sea is the main trade route for the export of Russian petroleum.  Only two other brackish waters are larger according to some measurements: The Black Sea is larger in both surface area and water volume, but most of it is located outside the continental shelf (only a small percentage is inland). Storm surge floodings are generally taken to occur when the water level is more than one metre above normal. , The Baltic Sea is the world's largest inland brackish sea. In spring, the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia normally thaw in late April, with some ice ridges persisting until May in the eastern extremities of the Gulf of Finland. Such inflows are important to the Baltic ecosystem because of the oxygen they transport into the Baltic deeps, used to happen regularly until the 1980s. Countries lands in the outer drainage basin: Belarus, Czech Republic, Norway, Slovakia, Ukraine. Elsevier Oceanography Series, vol.  The lack of tides has affected the marine species as compared with the Atlantic. The Gulf of Riga lies between the Latvian capital city of Riga and the Estonian island of Saaremaa. In recent years before 2011, the Bothnian Bay and the Bothnian Sea were frozen with solid ice near the Baltic coast and dense floating ice far from it. In the eighteenth century, Russia and Prussia became the leading powers over the sea. nov. (Actinopterygii, Pleuronectiformes): A New Flounder Species From the Baltic Sea", "Rapid speciation in a newly opened postglacial marine environment, the Baltic Sea", "White harbour porpoise sighting in Baltic Sea", "Rare Sowerby's beaked whale spotted in the Baltic Sea", "Whales seen again in the waters of the Baltic Sea", "Regional Species Extinctions - Examples of regional species extinctions over the last 1000 years and more", http://deski.fi/download.php?file_name=BlnrYjTbXR.pdf, "Satellite spies vast algal bloom in Baltic Sea", "Oxygenation at a Depth of 120 Meters Could Save the Baltic Sea, Researchers Demonstrate", "Ticking time bombs on the bottom of the North and Baltic Sea", Norbert Götz.  Today, fishermen occasionally find some of these materials: the most recent available report from the Helsinki Commission notes that four small scale catches of chemical munitions representing approximately 105 kg (231 lb) of material were reported in 2005.  The difference between the bottom and surface salinities vary depending on location. A peculiar feature of the fauna is that it contains a number of glacial relict species, isolated populations of arctic species which have remained in the Baltic Sea since the last glaciation, such as the large isopod Saduria entomon, the Baltic subspecies of ringed seal, and the fourhorn sculpin. Baltia also might be derived from belt and mean "near belt of sea, strait". The Baltic Sea is connected by artificial waterways to the White Sea via the White Sea-Baltic Canal and to the German Bight of the North Sea via the Kiel Canal. The more rounded southern basin of the gulf is called Bothnian Sea and immediately to the south of it lies the Sea of Åland. The proposal intends to use wind-driven pumps to inject oxygen (air) into waters at, or around, 130m below sea level. Plusieurs pays ont leurs côtes au bord de la mer Baltique, parmi lesquels : la Lettonie et la Pologne. Fertilizer runoff from surrounding agricultural land has exacerbated the problem and led to increased eutrophication.. An arm of the North Atlantic Ocean, the Baltic Sea is enclosed by Sweden and Denmark to the west, Finland to the northeast, the Baltic countries to the southeast, and the North European Plain to the southwest. Since May 2004, with the accession of the Baltic states and Poland, the Baltic Sea has been almost entirely surrounded by countries of the European Union (EU). It is mainly bacteria that grow in it, digesting organic material and releasing hydrogen sulfide. Plans to artificially oxygenate areas of the Baltic that have experienced eutrophication have been proposed by the University of Gothenburg and Inocean AB. The "Mother of All Trades": The Baltic Grain Trade in Amsterdam from the Late 16th to Early 19th Century. Both appear to have evolved in the Baltic basin and were only recognized as species in 2005 and 2018 respectively, having formerly been confused with more widespread relatives. In the early Middle Ages, Norse (Scandinavian) merchants built a trade empire all around the Baltic. Rystad, Göran, Klaus-R. Böhme, and Wilhelm M. Carlgren, eds. This Norse-dominated period is referred to as the Viking Age. The Teutonic Order gained control over parts of the southern and eastern shore of the Baltic Sea, where they set up their monastic state. The undersea tunnel of the Øresund Bridge-Tunnel provides for navigation of large ships into and out of the Baltic Sea. La carte ci-dessous présente une moyenne mensuelle de la température de l'eau de la mer Baltique pour le mois de août pour plusieurs villes côtières.
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